Health information technology has been created to improve quality by increasing adherence to guidelines, enhancing disease surveillance, and decreasing medication errors. Much of the evidence on quality improvement relates to primary preventive care (avoids the development of a disease) and secondary preventive care (early disease detection). Health IT has also made health care experts, policymakers, payers, and consumers consider it to be critical in transforming the health care industry. Health information technology has its benefits, however, adapting new information systems to health care has proven difficult and rates of use have been limited. Instead, information technology applications have been centered on administrative and financial transactions rather than on delivering clinical care.
Definitions of Health Information Technology
Health Information Technology is a term that is often used interchangeably with "electronic medical records". It is a system where medical professionals store the information usually contained in a patient chart on a computer, rather than on paper.
Health Information Technology is the use of information and communication technology in health care.
Health information technology (HIT) is "the application of information processing involving both computer hardware and software that deals with the storage, retrieval, sharing, and use of health care information, data, and knowledge for communication and decision making" (Brailer, & Thompson, 2004).
According to the researcher's findings, Health Information Technology (HIT) is the use of information technology in health care which allows the production of electronic medical records for communication and decision-making.
Facilitators of HIT
The following are various examples of information and communication used to facilitate Health Information Technology (HIT):
Electronic health record (EHR): EHRs were originally envisioned as an electronic file cabinet for patient data from various sources (eventually integrating text, voice, images, handwritten notes, etc.). Now they are generally viewed as part of an automated order-entry and patient tracking system providing real-time access to patient data, as well as a continuous longitudinal record of their care.
Computerized provider order entry (CPOE): CPOE is typically a medication ordering and fulfillment system. More advanced CPOE will also include lab orders, radiology studies, procedures, discharges, transfers, and referrals.
Clinical decision support system (CDSS): CDSS provides physicians and nurses with real time diagnostic and treatment recommendations. The term covers a variety of technologies ranging from simple alerts and prescription drug interaction warnings to full clinical pathways and protocols. CDSS may be used as part of CPOE and EHR.
Picture archiving and communications system (PACS): This technology captures and integrates diagnostic and radiological images from various devices (e.g., x-ray, MRI, computed tomography scan), stores them, and disseminates them to a medical record, a clinical data repository, or other points of care.