For each of sigmund freuds psycho-social development, he postulated that a set of personality characteristics would be associated with that stage of development. Fixation in the given stage of development would mean that the individual would show those characteristics in adulthood. (Sternberg`K.J. 1998 P569). In Freuds theory, the term for ones general sexual energy is called LIBIDO and the area on which this energy is focused is called the EROGENOUS ZONE. In children the most important areas at which this energy occure are the Mouth, Anus and Genital. Children have five psychosexual stages of development, namely: The Oral stage which is from 0-1 year, Anal stage 1-3 years, Phallic stage 3-5 years, Latency stage 5-12 years and finally the Genital stage which is from 12-18 years. However, the essence of this essay is to identify and discuss PSYCHO-SEXUAL which according to Freud is the developmental period that children pass through during which they encounter conflicts between the demand of society and their own sexual urges (. A. Spencer, 2003 PP418). DEVELOPMENT; which is a process of passing through a series of stages.
Oral stage is Freud's first Psycho-Sexual stage. The child's interest at this stage is the mouth, which is the primary source of erotic impulses and sexual gratification; which is the release of tension build up ( Ludy T.B. et al 1994 PP389). To release this tension, the infant sucks at the mothers breast. The main conflict during Oral stage according to Freud is weaning (withdrawing the breast or bottle) during weaning the infant finds pleasure in sucking its thumb which is combined with rubbing contact of certain parts of the body such as the breast and external genitals this is taken from
Freud in (Ludy T.B . et al 1994 PP3870) He continued to state that events in childhood determine to a large extent the personality of the adult. Hence fixation might occur later in life. Fixation is said to be a psychodynamic theory, arrested development. Attachment to objects of an earlier stage(SPENCER A.Rathus2004 pp418) It might occur if an infant's Oral needs are over indulged. Over indulgence is for example when a child is constantly fed just at the first time he signals to be feeling hungry. Sometimes infants may do this just to get attention from their mothers; rather the child will have to learn that feeding takes place on a timed schedule. If this is neglected, fixation at Oral stage might lead to drinking, smoking and might cause obesity due to excessive eating. The other process that takes place in Oral stage is that infants have a bond with their mother or caretaker such that they do not want anyone