English Colonies

Published: 2021-08-30 04:10:09
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Category: American History

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The English colonies in North America gained independence from Great Britain in 1783 and four years later established the most democratic form of government in the world up to that point. This paper will explain the geo-political-economic context the North American English colonies that were situated leading up to 1763. It will discuss the policies England implemented towards the North American English colonists between 1763 and 1774 and comment on the reasons the North American English colonists fought for independence. Then the paper will explain why the colonists prevailed in the revolutionary war. It will explain the geo-political implications of American independence. The paper will evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation and comment on the objectives of the "Founding fathers" in writing the United States constitution. In conclusion the paper will elaborate the historical and political significance of the United States constitution.

Leading up to 1763 the geo-political-economic context in the North American English colonies were situated. The Enlightenment was an elite cultural movement of intellectuals in Europe that sought to mobilize the power of reason in order to reform society and advance knowledge. It promoted intellectual interchange and opposed intolerance and abuses in Church and state. The Enlightenment had four stages; one, ideology which is commitment to liberalism, two, technological which is faith to science, three, political which is monarchy to democracy and, four, economic which is feudalism to industrial cataclysm. The French and Indian War took place between 1754 and 1763. It began with a dispute over the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers and erupted into violence in May 1754. The British won the war; the French lost their major stronghold of Quebec in September 1759, and then Montreal. As a result of their defeat, France was forced to give up all claims in Canada, and all claims in America east of the Mississippi.

There were six policies England implemented towards the North American English colonists between 1763 and 1774. The first policy is the recognition that there are thirteen colonies in North America. All of the colonies oriented towards England because they were stronger and had more power. The colonies had no sense of community within each other. The second policy in 1763 England aggravated salutary neglect which the British allowed to happen. The third policy is the key issue which is virtual representation vs. no taxation with any presentation. England had the right to regulate trade because the mother colony allowed it. The fourth policy happened between 1763 and 1774. Britain instituted revenue policies such as the Sugar Act, Stamp Act of 1765, Townshend Plan of 1767, and the Tea Act of 1773. The Sugar Act was a revenue-raising act passed by the Parliament of Great Britain on April 5, 1764. The Stamp Act of 1765 was a direct tax imposed by the Parliament specifically on the colonies of British America. The act required that many printed materials in the colonies be produced on stamped paper produced in London, carrying an embossed revenue stamp. These printed materials were legal documents, magazines, newspapers and many other types of paper used throughout the colonies. The Townshend Plan of 1767 was a series of laws passed beginning in 1767 by the Parliament of Great Britain relating to the British colonies in North America. The Townshend Plan led to the Boston Massacre of 1770. The Tea Act of 1773 was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain which was to reduce the massive surplus of tea held by the financially troubled British East India Company in its London warehouses. The fifth policy was the developments leading to the American Revolution. On September 1774 citizens of Massachusetts met in an area to get the Suffolk Resolves resolutions which lead to the formation of the Continental Congress. They fist made local comities of safety and they stopped trade for the West Indians and Europeans. Then they made their own declaration which is known as the Declaration of American Rights. The people who were not involved where white women, African American women, and Native Americans. The final policy is the Democratic Assemblies which is participation of the people.

North American English colonies fought for independence because of taxation without representation and religious freedom. Much has been focused on the Boston Tea Party where tea was being taxed incredibly high, so the locals dumped the tea into the harbor in protest. The revolution actually began through a long series of mistreatments, oppression, and injustice. An intolerance for the tight control and supervision of the British encouraged the American colonists to consider that life might be better if they governed themselves instead of answering to a government who was taking a great deal especially in labor and material goods. When the British began shooting Americans for public protests, the Americans decided it was time to arm themselves and end the servitude. They also wanted freedom of religion and to practice their own religion but Britain did not allow them.

The colonies prevailed in the revolutionary war because of the Guerilla warfare, colonies alliance with the French, supplies would take time and effort to get over to the colonies, and British were occupied with other problems. The Guerilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare and refers to conflicts in which a small group of combatants including armed civilians use military tactics, such as ambushes, sabotage, raids, the element of surprise, and extraordinary mobility to harass a larger and less-mobile traditional army, or strike a vulnerable target, and withdraw almost immediately.

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