Ethics Midterm Notes

Published: 2021-09-01 19:35:11
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Kohlberg and the Cognitive Development Approach Cognitive development – the thought process of someone going through moral development From childhood to adulthood, people follow a series of cognitive stages of how they think about ethical dilemmas Heinz and the Drug Man needs drug for dying wife, cannot afford it, so he breaks into the drug store Male oriented theory since the stages are derived from 10 – 16 year old boys; no female Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development. Level 1 – Preconventional: Choices made based on wants of individual; individual is self-centered, rules are externally imposed Stage 1: Obedience to rules; avoidance of punishment Stage 2: Satisfying one’s own needs Level 2 – Conventional: Choice of individual also takes into account other people Stage 3: Fairness to others Stage 4: Law and orderLevel 3 – Postconventional: Choice of individual also takes into account society Stage 5: Social contractStage 6: Universal Ethical principles Rest’s Four Component Model of Ethical Decision MakingIndividual’s behavior is related to level of moral developmentHow a person first identifies an ethical dilemma and continues through to his intention and finally courage to behave ethically Moral Sensitivity The ability to recognize when there is an ethical dilemma Be able to recognize when your actions can affect another personMoral JudgmentBasically, a person’s ability to figure out what SHOULD be done; which action is the “most right”Moral Motivation A person’s willingness to be ethical over self-interest/personal gain Moral CharacterJust because a person knows what the ethical thing to do is doesn’t mean he/she will act accordinglyPerson with strong moral character more likely to follow through with ethical action ThorneModel relies on virtue-based characteristicsVirtue TheorySimilar to Rest’s model1st, ethical action results from rational decision making2nd, both concerned with ethical decision making process3rd, acknowledge critical role of cognition Diem Thi Le & DCCADiem Thi Le was senior auditor with Defense Contract Audit Agency Audit opinion was changed by manager Contractor (the firm Le was auditing) was mischarging costs to the government DCAA’s performance metric is productivity rate, audit hours vs. dollar examined Saying contractor has adequate internal controls means less audit hours → higher productivity rate Manager performance review based on this Josephson – Six Pillars of CharacterTrustworthinessHonesty, integrity, reliability, and loyalty FairnessRespect Responsibility Caring Citizenship Jennings – 7 Signs of Ethical Collapse Pressure to maintain numbers Fear of repercussion/reprisal Loyalty to boss Weak board of directors Overlooking / ignoring conflicts of interest Innovation like no other company Goodness in some areas make up for evil in others Modern Moral Philosophies Teleology / Consequentialism – look at consequence Egoism – behavior is right or acceptable depending on consequence to the individual Enlightened egoism – considers the well-being of others but this is only to benefit themselves Utilitarianism – choose based on greatest net benefit for everyone Deontology – focus on rights of individuals Justice – rights, fairness, and equality Virtue Ethics Cultural ValuesIndividualism Power Stance Uncertainty Avoidance Masculinity Long-term orientation WorldcomMisstated earnings ~$11bn Cynthia Cooper, VP of internal auditing discovered fraud and reported to KPMG to investigate Betty Vinson (former director of corporate reporting) said she felt pressured Phar-MorMonus crossed off losses and wrote in profit Increased inventory Auditors told Phar-mor which stores they would visit Enron Company took on a large amount of debt, needed new strategy to generate addition profits / cash flow Gas Bank Skilling created idea to buy gas from network of suppliers and sell to network of consumersCharged transaction feesCulture Change / Performance Review CommitteeRecruited from top MBA schools; Skilling hired Andrew Fastow Performance measure based on profit generated Performance rated on scale of 1-5; 5 gets you fired Arthur Anderson Most of Enron’s accounting department were ex-Arthur Anderson people Special Purpose Entities (SPEs)

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