The Hupa (also spelled Hoopa) is an Athabaskan tribe that inhabit northwestern California. Hupa are Native North Americans whose language belongs to the Athabaskan language family. Hupa tradition suggests that they lived in the Hoopa valley for over 4,000 years, but their language suggests that they are recent immigrants from what is now Canada. They live on an Indian Reservation like most Indians do. That Indian Reservation is called the "Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation" which is the biggest Indian Reservation in California. In the 19th century, they occupied the land stretching from the South Fork of the Trinity River to Hoopa Valley, to the Klamath River in California.
They Hupa live in Cedar plank houses they were built of cedar slabs set on end, Hupa houses were half-buried rectangular structures made from redwood or cedar logs and planks. the walls being 4 ft high on the sides and rising to more than 6 ft at the ends to accommodate the slope of the roof. The entrance was a hole 18 or 20 inch, in diameter and about a foot above the ground. This was the storehouse for the family goods and the sleeping place of the women.
The Hupa depended for food on the deer and elk of the mountains, the salmon and lamprey of the river, and the acorns and other vegetal foods they grew. During the day, the men and boys over the age of ten would go hunting and fishing (deer, elk, salmon, trout and sturgeon). The Hupa used triangular fishing nets and constructed weirs to trap salmon, and hunted deer and elk. The tools the Hupa developed were weirs, pigeon traps, and the bow and arrow. Acorns were ground to make flour. They were great traders, exchanging skins and acorns with the Yoruk for dugout canoes, saltwater fish, seaweed, dentalia shells, and woodpecker scalps; and trading with other neighbors for white deerskins, abalone shells, and tobacco.